März den Namen Wehrmacht. Mit ihren drei Teilen Heer, Kriegsmarine und Luftwaffe wurde die Wehrmacht zum wichtigsten Instrument. Vor allem in rechten Kreisen ist bis heute das Bild der Wehrmacht als "saubere Armee" verbreitet. Das stimmt aber nicht. In der Nazi-Zeit steht. BESTAND · LERNEN · PROJEKT; Lupe. lemo Lebendiges Museum Online. Suchen. Treffer für deutsche Wehrmacht. Suchergebnisse einschränken.
Hitler und die WehrmachtWehrmacht ist die Bezeichnung für die Gesamtheit der Streitkräfte im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland. Die Wehrmacht ging durch das Gesetz für den. BESTAND · LERNEN · PROJEKT; Lupe. lemo Lebendiges Museum Online. Suchen. Treffer für deutsche Wehrmacht. Suchergebnisse einschränken. Konkret handelt es sich dabei um Archivalien der preußischen Armee, der kaiserlichen Marine, der Schutztruppen und Freikorps, der Reichswehr und Wehrmacht.
Wermacht Menu de navigation VideoWehrmacht vs SS scene in WW2
In the strategies of the Blitzkrieg , the Wehrmacht combined the mobility of light tanks with airborne assault to quickly progress through weak enemy lines, enabling the German army to quickly and brutally take over Poland and France.
Originally outlawed by the Treaty of Versailles, the Luftwaffe was officially established in , under the leadership of Hermann Göring.
The Luftwaffe concentrated production on fighters and small tactical bombers, like the Messerschmitt Bf fighter and the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bomber.
Overwhelming numbers of fighters assured air-supremacy, and the bombers would attack command- and supply-lines, depots, and other support targets close to the front.
The Luftwaffe would also be used to transport paratroopers, as first used during Operation Weserübung. The Western Allies' strategic bombing campaign against German industrial targets, particularly the round the clock Combined Bomber Offensive and Defence of the Reich , deliberately forced the Luftwaffe into a war of attrition.
Following the losses in Operation Bodenplatte in , the Luftwaffe was no longer an effective force. The Treaty of Versailles disallowed submarines, while limiting the size of the Reichsmarine to six battleships, six cruisers, and twelve destroyers.
With the signing of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement , the Germany was allowed to increase its navy's size to be tonnage of the Royal Navy, and allowed for the construction of U-boats.
In the Battle of the Atlantic , the initially successful German U-boat fleet arm was eventually defeated due to Allied technological innovations like sonar , radar , and the breaking of the Enigma code.
Large surface vessels were few in number due to construction limitations by international treaties prior to The "pocket battleships" Admiral Graf Spee and Admiral Scheer were important as commerce raiders only in the opening year of the war.
The Kriegsmarine ' s most significant contribution to the German war effort was the deployment of its nearly 1, U-boats to strike at Allied convoys.
In the beginning, there was friction between the SS and the army, as the army feared the SS would attempt to become a legitimate part of the armed forces of the Third Reich, partly due to the fighting between the limited armaments, and the perceived fanaticism towards Nazism.
All decisions regarding this would be at Hitler's personal discretion. Though there existed conflict between the SS and Wehrmacht , many SS officers were former army officers, which insured continuity and understanding between the two.
After the OKH became the de facto Eastern Theatre higher-echelon command-organization for the Wehrmacht , excluding Waffen-SS except for operational and tactical combat purposes.
The OKW conducted operations in the Western Theatre. The operations by the Kriegsmarine in the North and Mid-Atlantic can also be considered as separate theatres, considering the size of the area of operations and their remoteness from other theatres.
The Wehrmacht fought on other fronts, sometimes three simultaneously; redeploying troops from the intensifying theatre in the East to the West after the Normandy landings caused tensions between the General Staffs of both the OKW and the OKH — as Germany lacked sufficient materiel and manpower for a two-front war of such magnitude.
For a time, the Axis Mediterranean Theatre and the North African Campaign were conducted as a joint campaign with the Italian Army , and may be considered a separate theatre.
More than 6,, soldiers were wounded during the conflict, while more than 11,, became prisoners. In all, approximately 5,, soldiers from Germany and other nationalities fighting for the German armed forces—including the Waffen-SS , Volkssturm and foreign collaborationist units—are estimated to have been killed in action, died of wounds, died in custody or gone missing in World War II.
Included in this number are , Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany. German casualties took a sudden jump with the defeat of the Sixth Army at Stalingrad in January , when , soldiers were killed in one month.
Among the 5. Approximately three-quarters of these losses occurred on the Eastern front 2. Whereas German deaths between and on the western front had not exceeded three per cent of the total from all fronts, in the figure jumped to about 14 per cent.
Yet even in the months following D-day, about In addition to the losses, at the hands of the elements and enemy fighting, at least 20, soldiers were executed as sentences by the military court.
Nazi propaganda had told Wehrmacht soldiers to wipe out what were variously called Jewish Bolshevik subhumans, the Mongol hordes, the Asiatic flood and the red beast.
Prior to the outbreak of war, Hitler informed senior Wehrmacht officers that actions "which would not be in the taste of German generals", would take place in occupied areas and ordered them that they "should not interfere in such matters but restrict themselves to their military duties".
The Army's Chief of Staff General Franz Halder in a directive declared that in the event of guerrilla attacks, German troops were to impose "collective measures of force" by massacring entire villages.
While secretly listening to conversations of captured German generals, British officials became aware that the German Army had taken part in the atrocities and mass killing of Jews and were guilty of war crimes.
Taped conversations of soldiers detained as POWs revealed how some of them voluntarily participated in mass executions.
During the war, the Wehrmacht committed numerous war crimes against the civilian population in occupied countries.
This includes massacres of civilians and running forced brothels in occupied areas. Massacres would in many cases come as reprisals for acts of resistance.
With these reprisals, the Wehrmacht 's response would vary in severity and method, depending on the scale of resistance and whether it was in East or West Europe.
To combat German officials' fear of venereal disease and onanism ,  the Wehrmacht established numerous brothels throughout Nazi Germany and its occupied territories.
While the Wehrmacht 's prisoner-of-war camps for inmates from the west generally satisfied the humanitarian requirement prescribed by international law,  prisoners from Poland and the USSR were incarcerated under significantly worse conditions.
Between the launching of Operation Barbarossa in the summer of and the following spring, 2. The Nuremberg Trials of the major war criminals at the end of World War II found that the Wehrmacht was not an inherently criminal organization, but that it had committed crimes in the course of the war.
More recently, the judgement of Nuremberg has come under question. The Israeli historian Omer Bartov , a leading expert on the Wehrmacht  wrote in that the Wehrmacht was a willing instrument of genocide, and that it is untrue that the Wehrmacht was an apolitical, professional fighting force that had only a few "bad apples".
Evans , a leading expert on modern German history, wrote that the Wehrmacht was a genocidal organization. Shepherd writes that "There is now clear agreement amongst historians that the German Wehrmacht He wrote that:.
The Nazi revolution was broader than just the Holocaust. Its second goal was to eliminate Slavs from central and eastern Europe and to create a Lebensraum for Aryans.
As Bartov The Eastern Front; Hitler's Army shows, it barbarised the German armies on the eastern front. Most of their three million men, from generals to ordinary soldiers, helped exterminate captured Slav soldiers and civilians.
This was sometimes cold and deliberate murder of individuals as with Jews , sometimes generalised brutality and neglect.
German soldiers' letters and memoirs reveal their terrible reasoning: Slavs were 'the Asiatic-Bolshevik' horde, an inferior but threatening race.
Several high-ranking Wehrmacht officers, including Hermann Hoth , Georg von Küchler , Georg-Hans Reinhardt , Karl von Roques , Walter Warlimont and others, were convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the High Command Trial given sentences ranging from time served to life.
Originally, there was little resistance within the Wehrmacht , as Hitler actively went against the Treaty of Versailles and recovering the army's honor.
The resistance culminated in the 20 July plot , when a group of officers led by Claus von Stauffenberg attempted to assassinate Hitler. The attempt failed, resulting in the execution of 4, people  and the standard military salute being replaced with the Hitler salute.
Anton Schmid — a sergeant in the army — helped between and Jewish men, women, and children escape from the Vilna Ghetto in Lithuania. Albert Battel , a reserve officer stationed near the Przemysl ghetto, blocked an SS detachment from entering it.
He then evacuated up to Jews and their families to the barracks of the local military command, and placed them under his protection.
According to Wolfram Wette , only three Wehrmacht soldiers are known for being executed for rescuing Jews: Anton Schmid , Friedrich Rath and Friedrich Winking.
Following the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht , which went into effect on 8 May , some Wehrmacht units remained active, either independently e.
On 20 September , with Proclamation No. Immediately following the end of the war, many were quick to dismiss the Wehrmacht due to its failures and claim allied superiority.
Israeli military historian Martin van Creveld , who attempted to examine the military force of the Wehrmacht in a purely military context, concluded: "The German army was a superb fighting organization.
In point of morale, elan , troop cohesion and resilience, it was probably had no equal among twentieth century armies. The proverbial efficiency was even greater than previously thought, because the superiority of the opponent was much higher than at that time German officers suspected.
The analysis of Russian archive files finally gives us a clear picture in this regard. Gray believed that the Wehrmacht possessed outstanding tactical and operational capabilities.
However, following a number of successful campaigns, German policy began to have victory disease , asking the Wehrmacht to do the impossible.
The continued use of the Blitzkrieg also led to Soviets learning the tactic and using it against the Wehrmacht. Soon after the war ended, former Wehrmacht officers, veterans' groups and various far-right authors began to state that the Wehrmacht was an apolitical organization which was largely innocent of Nazi Germany's war crimes and crimes against humanity.
Its veterans organisation, HIAG , attempted to cultivate a myth of their soldiers having been "Soldiers like any other".
Following the division of Germany, many former Wehrmacht and SS officers in West Germany feared a Soviet invasion of the country. To combat this, several prominent officers created a secret army , unknown to the general public and without mandate from the Allied Control Authority or the West German government.
By the mids, tensions of the Cold War led to the creation of separate military forces in the Federal Republic of Germany and the socialist German Democratic Republic.
The West German military, officially created on 5 May , took the name Bundeswehr lit. Its East German counterpart—created on 1 March —took the name National People's Army German : Nationale Volksarmee.
Both organizations employed many former Wehrmacht members, particularly in their formative years,  though neither organization considered themselves successors to the Wehrmacht.
Wehrmacht veterans in West Germany have received pensions through the War Victims' Assistance Act German : Bundesversorgungsgesetz from the government.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Unified armed forces of Germany from to Reichskriegsflagge , the war flag and naval ensign of the Wehrmacht —45 version.
Emblem of the Wehrmacht , the Balkenkreuz , a stylized version of the Iron Cross seen in varying proportions. Heer army Kriegsmarine navy Luftwaffe air force.
Adolf Hitler first Karl Dönitz last. Werner von Blomberg first Adolf Hitler last. Kingdom of Hungary Second Spanish Republic Switzerland .
Heer ranks Kriegsmarine ranks Luftwaffe ranks. Further information: Nazism and the Wehrmacht and German re-armament. Main article: Wehrmachthelferin.
See also: Women in Nazi Germany. Main article: German Army — Main article: Luftwaffe. Main article: Kriegsmarine.
See also: Blockade of Germany — and Plan Z. Main article: Waffen-SS. Main article: Eastern Front World War II. Main article: Western Front World War II.
Main article: Mediterranean Theatre of World War II. Main article: German casualties in World War II.
I materiali che venivano messi a disposizione delle forze armate erano frutto di ricerche che si collocavano all'avanguardia, e venivano prodotti in stretta collaborazione con le forze armate.
Per quanto riguarda la Luftwaffe , esisteva un apposito Ministero dell'Aria del Reich, o RLM in tedesco Reichsluftfahrtministerium , incaricato dello sviluppo e della produzione dei velivoli, soprattutto per la forza armata, ma anche ad uso civile.
Le forze armate tedesche sperimentarono importanti innovazioni nelle tattiche di guerra terrestre ed aerea; in terra con la blitzkrieg venne rivoluzionato il concetto di utilizzo dei mezzi corazzati, soprattutto dal generale Heinz Guderian , con ampi studi sulle tattiche per usare i carri armati supportati da fanteria meccanizzata come massa di manovra veloce e potente invece che come appoggio alla fanteria, come molti eserciti continueranno a fare anche dopo l'inizio della seconda guerra mondiale.
Altro aspetto fondamentale fu una stretta cooperazione tra forze di terra e di aria, con l'affermarsi degli aerei da supporto tattico ravvicinato coordinati con le truppe attraverso controllori a terra.
Tra gli aerei che verranno sviluppati allo scopo, il famoso bombardiere in picchiata Stuka . L'industria bellica tedesca procedette alla produzione dei mezzi per il riarmo della Wehrmacht inizialmente tra mille cautele, viste le limitazioni imposte dal trattato di Versailles .
Durante i primi anni i mezzi terrestri ed aerei vennero ufficialmente prodotti per uso civile, ma con poche modifiche potevano essere utilizzati per scopi militari.
Anche le navi da guerra inizialmente erano conformi ai dettami del trattato, che ponevano come limite 6 corazzate, 6 incrociatori leggeri, 12 cacciatorpediniere, 12 torpediniere e nessun sottomarino .
Una figura chiave dell'industria tedesca di quel periodo fu Gustav Krupp , direttore dell' omonima fabbrica attiva nel settore dell'acciaio e delle munizioni.
Una volta salito al potere nel Hitler spese parte delle sue energie a potenziare e farsi amica l'industria pesante tedesca.
Altri provvedimenti tesi a migliorare le condizioni degli industriali furono l'abolizione degli scioperi e la messa al bando dei sindacati.
I gradi dello Heer e della Kriegsmarine rimasero immutati nella denominazione rispetto a quelli presenti nella Reichsheer e nella Reichsmarine ; i gradi della Luftwaffe vennero mutuati da quelli dell'esercito.
La Wehrmacht nacque ufficialmente, sostituendo formalmente la Reichswehr , il 16 marzo , giorno in cui il Terzo Reich diede notizia al mondo dell'abrogazione delle clausole contro il riarmo tedesco previste dal trattato di Versailles e della reintroduzione del servizio militare obbligatorio con un effettivo iniziale di 36 divisioni, tra cui tre Panzer-Division , le nuove divisioni corazzate.
Ufficialmente, il comandante in capo della Wehrmacht era il Cancelliere del Reich , posizione che Adolf Hitler mantenne dal , quando assunse tale carica, fino al suo suicidio nell'aprile del La struttura gerarchica delle forze armate tedesche era rigidamente centralizzata: al vertice stava quindi il Comando Supremo delle Forze Armate, l' OKW Oberkommando der Wehrmacht guidato da Hitler in persona con uno Stato Maggiore delle forze armate diretto dal generale Keitel, coadiuvato dal capo di stato maggiore, generale Alfred Jodl , e dal capo ufficio operazioni, colonnello Walter Warlimont  , che coordinava tutte le azioni militari; tuttavia, le singole armi esercito , aviazione , marina erano gestite autonomamente dai rispettivi alti comandi.
Esisteva quindi l' Oberkommando des Heeres OKH , diretto dal generale Walther von Brauchitsch ; l' Oberkommando der Marine OKM , tenuto dall'ammiraglio Erich Raeder ; e l' Oberkommando der Luftwaffe OKL al cui vertice c'era il reichsmarschall Hermann Göring .
Göring, eroe pluridecorato della prima guerra mondiale e marito di una aristocratica, delegava ampiamente ai suoi subordinati la parte attuativa a causa della sua incompetenza, ma curava moltissimo l'aspetto dell'immagine, apparendo al popolo tedesco come l'ultimo uomo del Rinascimento .
Combattive e temute furono soprattutto le divisioni paracadutiste Fallschirmjäger che furono impiegate proficuamente su tutti i fronti e che erano sotto l'esclusivo controllo della Luftwaffe.
In tempi recenti la storiografia internazionale ha posto grande attenzione al ruolo svolto dalla Wehrmacht nella condotta criminale tedesca durante la seconda guerra mondiale, soprattutto nella guerra di sterminio e annientamento combattuta sul fronte orientale.
Le strutture dirigenti di comando della Wehrmacht non frenarono questi eccessi e non si opposero alle indicazioni di Hitler, a parte la protesta formale del generale Blaskowitz che peraltro fu del tutto priva di risultati.
Sul fronte occidentale nel , solo le Waffen-SS effettuarono sporadicamente alcune rappresaglie e uccisioni sommarie di prigionieri Alleati, mentre i membri dell'esercito mantennero un comportamento nel complesso corretto .
Queste disposizioni del Führer vennero eseguite fin dal 22 giugno dai soldati della Wehrmacht che, impegnati in una lotta crudele in un territorio inospitale, esposti, se catturati, alla morte e alle violenze da parte dei soldati sovietici, operarono con grande durezza.
Il ruolo della Wehrmacht fu centrale nelle cosiddette operazioni di "pacificazione" e nelle devastazioni operate dai tedeschi sul suolo sovietico soprattutto nella lenta ritirata degli ultimi anni della guerra.
I metodi di repressione adottati dalla Wehrmacht, pienamente condivisi dai generali con alcune eccezioni come il generale Rudolf Schmidt che diramarono una serie di direttive draconiane alle truppe, prevedevano le fucilazioni sommarie, la distruzione di villaggi, la devastazione dei beni, la rappresaglia sui civili .
Le operazioni antipartigiane vennero incrementate a partire dal con la partecipazione in forze anche dei reparti combattenti di prima linea della Wehrmacht: vennero organizzate le cosiddette "grandi spedizioni" e le "zone morte", territori in cui era stata deportata tutta la popolazione e quindi con campo d'azione libero per i militari.
Durante la guerra antipartigiana furono uccisi circa Hitler aveva diramato il 16 dicembre una direttiva per la "repressione del banditismo" in cui prescriveva di impiegare ogni mezzo, anche contro donne e bambini .
I primi eccidi di massa si verificarono nell'ottobre a Kraljevo e Kragujevac in risposta ad attacchi dei cetnici e dei partigiani jugoslavi. Ingenti distruzioni devastarono il territorio e circa Secondo Guido Knopp oltre Molte furono le condanne a morte e le lunghe pene detentive, compresi alcuni ergastoli.
Un momento di svolta nella propaganda del Reich fu segnato dal discorso del ministro Joseph Goebbels il 18 febbraio al Palazzo dello Sport di Berlino.
Tutte le risorse umane e materiali del Terzo Reich e dei territori occupati dovevano essere mobilitate per rafforzare la Wehrmacht ed ottenere a qualunque costo la "vittoria finale" contro l'"innaturale" alleanza tra Unione Sovietica comunista e potenze capitalistiche anglosassoni.
Il sistema di reclutamento e addestramento tedesco durante la seconda guerra mondiale era organizzato su base regionale. Prima dell' Anschluss i distretti militari Wehrkreise erano 13 nominati con numeri romani da I a XIII , diventati in seguito 15 XVII e XVIII e infine 17 dopo la campagna di Polonia XX e XXI.
Le "armi miracolose", secondo la propaganda, avrebbero cambiato radicalmente il corso del conflitto, che volgeva ormai chiaramente a favore degli Alleati.
In ogni caso, esse rappresentarono un concreto sviluppo tecnologico del quale gli Alleati si sarebbero largamente avvalsi nel futuro, per entrambi i blocchi che si sarebbero poi fronteggiati nella guerra fredda.
Patton And Rommel: Men of War in the Twentieth Century. Stroud, Rick The Phantom Army of Alamein: The Men Who Hoodwinked Rommel. Tucker, Spencer C.
A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Vigor, P.
Soviet Blitzkrieg Theory. Zabecki, David T. World War Two in Europe. Zeiler, Thomas W. A Companion to World War II.
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Il est totalement soutenu par le parti nazi autrichien qui dispose d'une grande influence dans le pays. La bataille de Westerplatte se termine le 7 septembre quand sa garnison se rend [ 51 ].
Les exceptions sont les divisions de la Luftwaffe , des Waffen-SS et la division Grossdeutschland. Hitler: —, Nemesis.
New York: W. Hitler: A Biography. The Luftwaffe: A History. Nazi Germany at War. German officer education in the interwar years PhD diss.
Frauen im Nationalsozialismus em German. Moscow: Veche. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country 2nd ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Germans to the Front: West German Rearmament in the Adenauer Era. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.
Israel and the Daughters of the Shoah: Reoccupying the Territories of Silence. The Royal Navy and Nazi Germany, —39 A Study in Appeasement and the Origins of the Second World War.
London: Macmillan Press. In: El-Affendi, Abdelwahab. Genocidal Nightmares: Narratives of Insecurity and the Logic of Mass Atrocities. New York City: Bloomsbury.
Counterinsurgency in Modern Warfare. War in History. Inside Hitler's High Command. Lawrence, Kansas: Kansas University Press.
War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, Geschichte und Zukunft der Luftlandetruppen em German.
Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine — gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie [ Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War — A Statistical Investigation ] em Russian.
Destructivity: A Political Economy of Military Effectiveness in Conventional Combat. PhD diss. Cross of Iron: The Rise and Fall of the German War Machine, — The Army, Politics and Society in Germany — Studies in the Army's Relation to Nazism.
Manchester: Manchester University Press. The Unknown Eastern Front: The Wehrmacht and Hitler's Foreign Soldiers. New York: I. Hitler's Wehrmacht, — Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Soldaten: On Fighting, Killing, and Dying — The Secret WWII Transcripts of German POWs.
New York: Alfred A. German U-Boat Losses During World War II: Details of Destruction. London: Frontline Books. Smith, Robert W.
Marine Corps Gazette. Danmark under anden verdenskrig em Danish. The Heer was by far the largest branch of the Wehrmacht, and, upon the outbreak of war, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine units were theoretically subordinated to army command at a tactical level.
This did not yield a seamless combined arms approach, however, as the OKW never functioned as a true joint staff. When cross-branch cooperation did occur, it was often the result of local commanders creating ad hoc task forces of limited duration.
Coordination was also complicated by the heads of the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe, who had no desire to see their branches diminished in importance.
Hitler himself had little interest in sea power , and the naval commander in chief, Grand Adm. Erich Raeder , frequently clashed with the Führer over strategic matters.
Other than the invasions of Denmark and Norway , which were planned and overseen by Raeder, German naval operations during the war consisted primarily of submarine attacks on Allied shipping.
Just two modern battleships were deployed by Germany during World War II: the Bismarck was sunk within days of putting to sea in May , and the Tirpitz was confined to Norwegian waters until it was finally sunk by British Lancaster bombers on November 12,However, influence with Von Liebe not only came from rank and merit, but Oben Netflix who Hitler perceived as loyal, leading to inter-service rivalry, rather than cohesion between his military advisers. War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, Tiger King Netflix, Rafael; Wiegrefe, Klaus 21 October August rund Deshalb ist dort ein Modell entwickelt worden, das auf die Vernichtung der Bevölkerung abzielte. Neuer Bereich.